External Versus Internal Evaluation

One of the issues to be addressed is who should conduct the evaluation of the organization and its programmes: an external group, the organization itself or a combination of the two?

External evaluation

An external organization is typically conducted by an agency completely independent of the health promotion fund, which can help with ensuring transparency.

However, this option can be very expensive, particularly if the external group is responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the evaluation and the collation of statistical data. In some countries, this approach may not be feasible as the necessary evaluation expertise may be absent within the community.

Internal evaluation

With internal evaluations, the evaluators are staff members who can add value by being active participants in refining strategies in response to the evaluation findings. Running the evaluation programme internally is likely to be a less expensive option. However, internal evaluations can be perceived as biased and may lack academic rigour.

Combination of external and internal evaluations

A combination of external and internal evaluation offers the best of both worlds, whereby an external organization designs the programme, conducts specific surveys, and leads the evaluation of major projects. However, the day-to-day implementation of the evaluation system would be carried out internally.


World Health Organization. (2004). The establishment and use of dedicated taxes for health. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific.

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